The hottest local retail industry dances with wolv

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10 years after the local retail industry and the wolf danced together to replace the bar code with RFID, China cancelled the restrictions on the region, equity and quantity of foreign-invested commercial enterprises on December 11, 2004. This shows that the opening-up of China's commercial sector has been further accelerated, and the transition period for domestic funded commercial enterprises to be protected has been shortened. China's retail enterprises growing up under the umbrella began to dance with the "wolf". Can Chinese retail enterprises make use of the advantages of localized resources and localized operation to win the competition with Wal Mart, Carrefour and other international giants? Maybe it depends on how to use the "life-saving straw" of informatization

"sheep" three weaknesses

chain operation is an effective way to improve the competitiveness of the retail industry. In 2003, the proportion of China's chain enterprises in the total retail sales of social consumer goods was only 8.04%, which shows that the level of chain operation in China is relatively low

As a modern circulation mode, chain operation has become a new growth point of economic development after more than 10 years of development since it appeared in China in the early 1990s. The sales growth rate of the national chain retail enterprises has remained above 20% in the past two to three years, which is much higher than the growth rate of the national total retail sales of consumer goods. According to the statistics of the National Bureau of statistics, by the end of 2003, the sales volume of chain operation in Shanghai had reached 100billion yuan, accounting for 45% of the total retail sales of social consumer goods. In 2003, the sales volume of chain operation in Beijing had reached 46.3 billion yuan, accounting for 24.2% of the total retail sales of social consumer goods. Zhangzhigang, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce, said at the 6th China Chain Conference that at present, the degree of organization, modernization level, operation scale and operation efficiency of China's retail enterprises can not meet the needs of national economic development. There are three major problems in China's retail enterprises

first of all, the enterprise is small in scale, low in intensification and weak in competitiveness. In 2003, the sales volume of Wal Mart, the world's largest retailer, was $263billion, accounting for 7.6% of the total retail sales of consumer goods in the United States that year. Last year, the sales of the top 100 wholesale and retail enterprises in China reached 4129 It reduced the piston by 800million yuan, an increase of 42.7% over the top 100 in 2002, but it only accounted for 9% of the total retail sales of consumer goods in the whole society; Shanghai Bailian Group, the largest circulation enterprise in China, had a sales volume of 92.1 billion yuan in 2003, only equivalent to 4.2% of the sales volume of Wal Mart in that year

secondly, the level of enterprise management and informatization is low. According to the survey of some circulation enterprises, only 6.84% of the enterprises have basically realized e-commerce, and the proportion of informatization investment of circulation enterprises in the total assets is less than 2% on average, which is far from the average level of 8% ~ 10% of large foreign enterprises

finally, the management level is low, and there is a big gap between the main economic indicators and multinational commercial enterprises. In 2003, the average turnover rate of commercial enterprises among China's top 500 enterprises was only 2.4 times a year, while the highest turnover rate of commercial enterprises in developed countries reached more than 20 times a year. The profit margin of Wal Mart reached 3% in 2002. In 2003, the average profit margin of commercial enterprises among China's top 500 enterprises was 1.06%, ranking the third lowest in the industry. The profit decreased by 24.89% over the previous year

On April 9, 2004, the Ministry of Commerce officially promulgated the measures for the administration of foreign investment in the commercial sector, which made it clear that the commercial use of foreign capital was to be officially opened from a pilot project. According to statistics, more than 40 of the world's 50 largest retail enterprises have settled in China, and their expansion territory is developing from the former eastern coastal areas to the central and western inland areas. At present, Wal Mart has opened 40 stores in 20 cities, and the number of stores will exceed 10 next year. The scope of stores is no longer limited to large cities, and small and medium-sized cities are also Wal Mart's expansion goals; Carrefour has also opened more than 40 stores, and its tentacles have extended to the western border of Xinjiang

according to yuanzhongmin, deputy director of Logistics Management Department of Lianhua Supermarket Co., Ltd., it needs about 30million yuan to open a large-scale supermarket like Century Lianhua in China; A standard supermarket like Shanghai Lianhua needs about 2-3million yuan; If it is a convenience store like express, the investment will be about 200000 yuan. With the advantages of strong capital, management and globalization, foreign retail enterprises have launched the enclosure movement to compete for the market in China

there is no doubt that when retail giants such as Wal Mart and Carrefour are expanding, enterprise informatization has become a powerful weapon for their all-round attack. Sam, the founder of Wal Mart. Walton attaches great importance to the communication of information and the construction of information system to play a damping role in the bite. In Wal Mart's huge group purchase and sales network, the information-based high-tech contact mode represented by satellite communication and computer management plays a decisive role. In the early 1980s, before the Internet entered the commercial field, Wal Mart spent $24million to buy a satellite from Hughes Aircraft Company, which was launched and put into use in 1983. Wal Mart has spent more than $600million to build the current computer and satellite system. With the help of this huge information network, all departments of Wal Mart can communicate and all business processes can run quickly, accurately and smoothly

the role of technology in the development of Wal Mart mainly follows one principle: Wal Mart must control the changes of commodities in the distribution channels between suppliers and Wal Mart. Wal Mart needs to master all the information from the location of the goods to the arrival time of the goods, so that Wal Mart personnel can determine the time and accurately deliver the goods to the store to ensure that their goods storage capacity is optimal. Wal Mart's network connects more than 2400 stores and 100 distribution centers around the world, which can realize the automatic replenishment and stable operation of the supply chain and help Wal Mart maintain low prices and low inventory

the "straw" is not enough to save lives

the news from the Department of commercial reform and development of the Ministry of Commerce shows that the state should strive to cultivate 10 circulation enterprises with an annual sales scale of more than 10billion yuan, 4 with an annual sales scale of more than 20billion yuan and 1 with an annual sales scale of more than 80billion yuan. In April2003, Bailian Group Co., Ltd., the largest domestic commercial circulation enterprise formed by the merger of Shanghai 100 group, Hualian Group, Youyi group and material group, was officially established, indicating that China's circulation industry has entered a new stage of comprehensive merger, reorganization and integrated development. Although China has accelerated the establishment of retail group oligarchs, it will take time for the merged enterprises to fully integrate

as far as the current retail enterprises are concerned, it is necessary to improve the standard level and scale of chain enterprises, and develop in multiple formats and fields. Informatization will become a lifesaving straw in the process of enterprise restructuring and enterprise development. In 2003, the IT investment in China's retail industry was more than 800 million US dollars, while that in Japan reached 5.187 billion US dollars. "Compared with international giants, China's local retail enterprises still have a certain gap in equipment allocation, but the biggest gap is our informatization application level. The informatization application level of China's retail enterprises is very low." Yuanzhongmin said

generally speaking, the chain supermarket information system should cover the head office management system, distribution center system, store system, POS system, query and analysis system, etc. Yuanzhongmin said: "We generally follow three principles when building the system. The first is the standardization of software. The system should not only be used by internal personnel, but also realize the overall management of the upstream, middle and downstream supply chain. For example, suppliers can query goods, Download orders, check orders and other functions through the supplier service system. The second is the security of ports and ports, which will involve the security of suppliers' prices and other trade secrets ; Finally, the system should have expandable space. "

wuyiping, general manager of Cisco China retail distribution division, said: "From customers' purchasing behavior, we can see that they like convenience, good price, product quality and short-term service response. Therefore, the front-end POS machine, back-end application and inventory counting system of the supermarket need real-time response. The in store mobile network provided by Cisco can help the store conduct real-time checkout through wireless POS and complete inventory counting by using wireless terminal devices."

according to yuanzhongmin, after the establishment of Bailian Group, the whole group has a great demand for informatization from top to bottom. Each branch can complete real-time data exchange with the headquarters, but each store has not sold in real time. "If the price is too high for each store to install a dedicated line, we hope there is a safe, reliable, stable and cheap way to install it in the market."

rfid ensures the safe and stable operation of the system and will not replace bar code within 10 years.

rfid has become one of the hottest technologies this year. The electronic tag embedded with RFID chip will contain product features, such as manufacturer, size and color, as well as supply chain information, such as when the goods were shipped, origin and destination. The attraction of RFID to retailers is that it can keep abreast of the business situation in real time and reduce the manual acceptance and inventory time

although Wal Mart, Metro and tusco require their suppliers to use RFID system for supply, and Gome has also opened the first RFID test shop in China, the application of RFID is a highly complex industrialization problem. The low level of standards and interoperability makes it difficult to form an industrial scale, and it is difficult to reduce costs without scale. At present, the price of the label is about 25 to 30 cents, or about 2 yuan, while the unit cost of the bar code label is only 2 cents. For the retail industry with increasingly meager profits, 2 yuan is already the total gross profit of many commodities, so RFID is difficult to promote. At present, the annual demand for RFID tags in the world is about 10million pieces. Only when the demand exceeds 5billion pieces can the price be reduced to 2 cents (that is, 15 cents), and it is possible to have large-scale application in the retail industry. But from 10million to 5billion, it will not be a short process

dan hopping, IBM's retail industry solutions department, said: "RFID has strengthened the management of the supply chain and costs of retail enterprises, become a people-oriented computing center, and will become a new payment method. However, RFID will not replace barcode within 10 years, and commodity level applications still face many challenges."

yuanzhongmin said: "RFID electronic tags can be used on high-value containers. For a single commodity, they need to be used on a large scale." At present, the application of bar code in China has not been fully popularized. Lianhua Supermarket forces all goods provided by suppliers to have outer box bar code and standard specifications, and can complete automatic distribution through box type sorting machine. "In the second half of this year, Lianhua Supermarket invested more than 60million yuan in logistics distribution and established a distribution system with 25 sorting machines. This system will be put into operation in December and will try to launch a new mining project in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which will greatly improve the distribution speed of Lianhua Supermarket."

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